Education and Speech Therapy
The Training of Logopedists in Hungary at the "Barczi Gusztav" College of Special Education

Gabor TOTH


ABOUT THE COLLEGE (FIRST PART)

The foundation


In 1802 The Institute for the Deaf, the first institute in Hungary for people with developmental disabilities, was founded in the city of Vac, 60 km North of Budapest. In the following years-other institutes were founded to deal with broad ranges of disabilities. But there were still no colleges yet established to educate teachers for these fields. Instead, various institutes trained primary school teachers directly, to teach special needs students.
The year of 1900 however, saw the State consolidation of all the institutes' programs. Thus, the College Course for Teachers of the Handicapped was created. And in 1946 this program became the College, an independent institution in Hungarian higher education. From this point onward the College could begin its own Undergraduate programs, bringing in High School graduates and training them in both theory and in an actual internship.

The Institute for Psychology in Special Education

Pal Ranschburg founded the Institute for Psychology in Special Education, earlier known as the Hungarian Laboratory of Experimental Psychology, in 1926. It is the leading institute of services for the developmentally disabled. Thus the therapeutic and assessment services provided by the institute have led to a close bond between it and the College, both supporting the other's progress. The institute has become the main facility for training at the college.

The Creation of Departments

Between 1900 and 1968 teacher training was comprehensive. Special education teachers were trained to work with all forms of developmental disabilities: from intellectual disabilitiesto speech, hearing and visual impairment, to physical disabilities. This proved to be too broad a range, so in 1968 the decision was made to break the program down into distinct disciplines and courses of study. With this came the distinction between fields and the creation of distinct disciplines.
The College continues to extend its fields, from 1972 with the training of Social Organizers, to the training of Educators in 1973 and in 1990 with the implementation of programs for Social Work. From the inception of the College, the Faculty has actively included in their respective fields, conducting research and promoting services for the developmentally disabled.


EDUCATION PROGRAM

Admission requirements for "Barczi Gusztav" College

"Barczi Gusztav" College offers both full and part-time studies. Students wishing to study in either capacity must fulfill the following requirements.
1.) Successful completion of Secondary School
2.) A Secondary School graduation certificate
3.) Successful completion of the College Entrance Examination

Students interested in part-time studies must currently be employed in a field related to their intended programs of study. "Barczi Gusztav" College admits students regardless of gender, race, color or religion.

Further Education for Special Teachers/Refresher Courses

Presently there are different courses for special teachers who wish to keep up to date with advances in their fields. Each course consists of 120 hours of study time. Teachers interested in this should contact the College directly.

The graduate Program with "Eotvos Lorand" University (ELTE)

With an Undergraduate degree from "Barczi Gusztav" College, graduates are able to study at Graduate level at ELTE. Programs, which focus around the same fields as at "Barczi Gusztav" College, include school management, school policy, research methodology, etc. Completion of the chosen program must be within two years (4 semesters).

THE CURRICULA

The fields of study, which can be chosen by students majoring in special education, are based on the types of impairment. Students are trained to become special needs teachers or therapists. Special needs teachers and therapists acquire and become acquainted with educational, developmental and preventive pedagogical procedures - partly through observation and practice, partly through seminars, lectures and independent study - in order to meet all the particular expectations of individuals and groups.

TABLE 1.

Fields of study Individuals or groups requiring special education
Education of the Hearing-Impaired Hearing impaired people
Education of the Visually-Impaired Visually-impaired people
Speech Therapy People with speech, language and articulation disorders
Psychopedagogy People with behaviour disorders /disorders of capacity, education and adaptation/
Somatopedagogy Physically disabled and injured people
Education of the Intellectually Challenged People with moderate, severe or profound intellectual disorders
Education of Children and Adults with Learning Difficulties People with mild intellectual disorders and learning difficulties

The training is as follows:

- General basic education in the subject units of general special pedagogy, general pedagogy,
psychology, sociology, biology and language which occupies 30% of the full-time training.
- Education in special needs which occupies 20% of the full-time training.
- Professional training which occupies 50% of the full-time training.

The present of special needs training was created in 1992 as a new teaching reform. To some extent students may choose the content, the direction and the length of their training. In the course of their studies may choose whether to:
- Study for a special needs teacher-therapist's certificate in two fields of study within same
types of disabled groups.
- Study for a special needs teacher's certificate in two fields of study for working with different
types of disabled groups.
- Study for a special needs teacher-therapist's certificate for working with different types of
disabled groups.

College level training in the field of general social work is a new area. Beyond the requirements of qualification laid down by government decree, the content of the training also includes specifications laid down by the College of Special Education. Rehabilitation, mental health, child welfare and social services for senior citizens are given particular emphasis in the latter stages of the course. The role of the consultant teacher is very significant during the training. The teacher may help the student in his/her choice of appropriate subjects and modules.
The responsibility of the student is also very important in shaping his/her training and professional future. Students have to prove their suitability for a particular field of study after the college entrance examination. The student must also assess external factors such as the demand for certain qualifications in the labor market. Self-knowledge, the ability to plan for the short - and long-term future, preparation and organizational skills and the ability to make decisions will all be expected of the student. This freehand- selection training system requires more organization and responsibility from the students and teachers than traditional training structures.

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND INTERNATIONAL PROFESSIONAL RELATIONS

Research at the College and professional cooperation with foreign schools of higher education has had a long tradition and strong ties. Research development projects as well as international professional relations help promote Special Education and Social Work Training to a high scientific standard and up-to-date training of professionals.

Recent research themes include:
1. University-level training of special needs teachers and preparation for the integration of the
College into a University
2. Reform of the training of special needs teachers of the College
3. Coordination of the training of Social Workers and the requirements of a new social network

The outcome of research programs between 1990-1996 was a new concept of training for special needs teachers adapted to European University Standards. Training courses for a new profession - special needs teacher - therapist - have now been launched. Assessment of social workers with completed training courses and degrees has been made in terms of their professional potential, new subjects have been created, fields of practice have been extended, etc.

The "Barczi Gusztav" College for Special Education enjoys a wide range of strong professional ties with similar institutions of higher education and fields of practice all over Europe, America and Canada. The aims of these ties include: the exchange of experience, study trips, post-graduate studies and in-service training, inviting visiting professors, part-time studies, research, drafting syllabuses, conferences, etc. The College encourages students' programs and study trips to other countries.
Students from abroad may only pursue their studies in Hungarian on the Core Program, but it is possible for them to complete their practical training in a foreign language.

Research at the College and international cooperation are supported by tender projects such as the:
-Phare-Tempus project of the World Bank,
-Phare thematically specified research projects,
Also by foundations such as the Soros Foundation, the Foundation for Hungarian Higher Education and Research and the "Pro Renovanda Cultura Hungariae" Foundation, as well as by the Ministry of Culture and Education, the Ministry of Social Welfare, the National Scientific Research Funds and the Hungarian Scholarship boards etc.

Research programs under way at the College include:
-Mainstream education of children with special needs
-Analysis of competence-deficiency with regard to special educational psychology
-The alternatives to remedial education
-The number concept of visually impaired children
-Way in which unemployed people adapt to new conditions
-In-service training for heads of social institutions


THE DEPARTMENT OF PHONETICS AND SPEECH THERAPY

The course trains students becoming teachers and therapists in speech therapy (logopedics) and special education. Students are trained in screening, examination and care of children and adolescents with speech and language disorders. Students are prepared for the work in nurseries, special schools of speech therapy, speech-correction classes, schools and institutes. They are responsible for the prevention of speech disorders.

Educational projects include study of the following examples:
Central disorders of the tongue, Organic disorders of the peripheral speech organs, Language disorders caused by cerebral damage, Disorders in speech-rhythm, Speech defects caused by hearing damage, Methodology of speech- techniques and additional therapeutic programs.

Research Projects include:
-The development of special examining equipment in speech therapy;
-The examination of spelling;
-Research into children's language;
-Research regarding diagnosis in speech therapy.


EDUCATION OF LOGOPEDISTS (SECOND PART)

The Past

The education of logopedists (ST) in Hungary is of the same age as the education of general special teachers (Special Education). The College - that it was written before - was established in 1900, at first on two-year course level. Since 1928 it has been qualified as Teachers College with four-year program.
What is the conception of the general special education been? Not every student is acquainted with all fields of disability (i.e. mentally retarded, deaf, blind etc.). Further more the students became adept of the different speech defects too. The same principle was carried into practice teaching. This educational system became the tradition in deficiencies, such as deafness, blindness etc. in Hungary. The great advantage of it was that it created a more complex attitude to the special pedagogical conception. This conception had a determinative importance in the therapy of both the primary communication defects (i.e. speech and language disorders) and the secondary ones (i.e. speech disorders associated with other deficiencies, as deafness, blindness etc.)

Table 2.

THE BACKGROUND OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE LOGOPEDISTS` EDUCATION IN HUNGARY

Public education act

The development of the instruction in the Hungarian mother tongue

Speech disorders coming into prominence

THE INCREASE OF THE KNOWLEDGE IN LOGOPEDICS
(The results of the foreign and Hungarian research)

The categorisation of the speech disorders
Speech disorders Speech disorders associated with
organisation in speech therapy
The increase of the demand
on professionals (logopedists)
The development of the form
of organisation in speech therapy

The above table shows us the significant role of the development of the education of the logopedists (ST) in Hungary until the turn of the twentieth century. (Table 2.)
Under the influence of the Public Education act the education and the instruction in the Hungarian mother tongue became conspicuous. As a result the primary school teachers turned their attention to the children who differed from the average, such as those suffering from speech disorders. Thus a correction system was set up.
With this modern concept of prevention, and simultaneously with the education of the logopedists, courses were organised for teachers, medical superintendents of schools, and parents concerned in an attempt to improve their knowledge of the theme. The professionals who were responsible for it, brought into begin the conception of counselling, which was unusual at that time.
As a consequence the frequency data of speech disorders, the recognition of their importance simultaneously promoted the establishment of training for professionals and the organisation forms of therapy. Later on according to the traditional concepts the areas of specialisation (oligophrenpedagogy, surdopedagogy, typhlopedagogy, somatopedagogy and logopedics) gradually increased to five branches. From the 1960`s the claim to raise the training to a higher standard set off a tendency of controversy. The obligatory branches were diminished at first to three and than to two, which is valid in the present. (Table 3.)

TABLE 3.

HISTORY OF THE PREPARATION OF THE SPECIAL EDUCATORS IN HUNGARY

1900 Vac - course
1904 Budapest - course
1906 Budapest - college level


TENDENCIES IN THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

1900-1964 : 5 branches
1964- : 3 branches
1973- : 2 branches

NEW BRANCHES

1968 - Psychopedagogy
1973 - Social worker
1977 - Somatopedagogy
1983 - course for interpreters on sign language


The Present

The significance of logopedics was denoted by the fact that it was compulsory both at the period of five and three branches of education. Recently the branch of oligophrenpedagogy is obligatory while the second one (i.e. logopedics, somatopedagogy etc.) is optional. This structure maintained the traditional wide based special pedagogical (educational) concept.
An up to date training must always be sensitive and flexible to changes! We tried to carry this principle into a practice. Therefore since the 1960`s we introduced the following themes: dyslexia, dysgraphia, dyscalculia, swallowing disorders, later on the augmentative communication and psychomotricity (psychomotoric development). The development of the related branch of knowledge was reflected by the subjects of psycholinguistics, neurolinguistics, neuropsychology etc. Within the scope of psychological practice, periodically autogen training (AT), growth group was expected. The most outstanding and characteristic case histories did not form an independent subject but were essential parts of our lectures.
Due to a gradual increase in the number of the subjects, the modification of the speech and language defects, the severe and multiple forms of the speech problems becoming more prominent, the claim for higher hours on end, broke the recent frame and structure of education.


The Future

The following views were kept in mind when planning the future. (Table 4.)

TABLE 4.
VIEW IN THE PLANNING OF THE EDUCATION OF LOGOPEDISTS

1.) Preserving the tradition of the special teachers` education
2.) Trying to get a solution to the ideas thrown out by the practice
- the modification of the speech defects (according to quantity and quality)
- the changing form of organisation and system in speech therapy
- new subjects (theory, assessment) practice
3.) Introducing personality training
4.) Elaboration of the conception of the two types of education
5.) Harmonising with the future European and word education

In accordance to what has been long advocated students in the future may specialise either in one or two branches. All branches are optional. We prefer logopedics-surdopedagogics, or logopedics-somatopedagogics. The new concept is based on their phases (Table 5.). In the phase of the so-called general basic education we kept the traditional view for all branches. Medical, psychological, pedagogical, special pedagogical and social sciences and linguistics are given. The total hours are 864 it represents 30% of the training. The next stage furnishes a basis for two optional branches by 576 hours, 20%. You may follow on (Table 5.) the subjects thought.

TABLE 5.

THE STRUCTURE OF THE EDUCATION OF LOGOPEDISTS
Total number of lessons: 2880
STAGE OF THE PROFESSIONAL TRAINING
Number of lessons: 1440, 50% of the training
TEACHER AND THERAPIST TEACHER
Special teacher-clinical logopedists 50% Special teacher-teacher
logopedists 25%
The other optional
line 25%
STAGE OF THE BASIC EDUCATION ON TWO LINES
Number of lessons: 576, 20% of the training
LOGOPEDICAL LINE 10% THE OTHER OPTIONAL LINE 10%
1. Psycholinguistics
2. Child language
3. Phonetics and speech acoustics
4. Pathology of the communication disorders
5. Audiology
6. Orthodontics
7. Didactics and methodology
8. Drama- and music therapy
9. Speech techniques
(depends on the other line subject's)
STAGE OF THE GENERAL BASIC EDUCATION (for all lines)
Number of lessons: 864, 30% of the training
Pedagogy
Special pedagogy
Psychology
Medical sciences
Musical and visual education

Before the third stage students may decide to specialise in one or two of the branches. The former will be the "full" clinical logopedist (speech therapist) while the latter with two lines becomes the so-called teacher-logopedist (speech teacher). The clinical logopedist is competent in the assessment and therapy of the voice, speech and language disorders. Display supervisor activity for the teacher-logopedist. Her/his activity covers all type of work done both in educational and public health institutions. She/he may work in theatres too as teacher on speech techniques.

According to our concept the teacher-logopedist will correct infant speech disorders both in normal and special primary schools. Further on she/he will be competent to work as a primary school teacher in special classes. She/he may work in speech ambulances too. In the next table (Table 6.) you may observe that the subject of both types of training and the hours of clinical practice for both types are very important.


TABLE 6.

STAGE OF THE PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION THE CONTENTS OF THE TWO TYPES
CLINICAL LOGOPEDISTS
Number of lessons: 1440, 50% of the training
CLINICAL PRACTICE: 480 hours
TEACHER LOGOPEDISTS
Number of the lessons: 720, 25% of the training
CLINICAL PRACTICE: 290 hours
COMMON SUBJECTS
1. History of special education
2. Psychology of special education
3. Psychology of the communication disorders
4. Augmentative communication
5. Seminar on case history
6. Rogers therapy
7. Psychodiagnostics of the communication disorders
1. Pathology of the communication disorders
2. Psychology of the communication disorders
3. Speech techniques (theory and practice)
4. Central disorders of language development:
- Delayed language development
- Agnosia
- Dyslalia
- Dysgrammatism
- Dyslexia
- Cluttering
5. Pathology of the speech organs:
- Palatal dysglossia
6. Language disorders due to brain disease:
- Dysphasia
- Dysarthria
- Aphasia
7. Dysphemia (adolescent and adult stuttering)
8. Psychopathic disorders of communication:
Dysphrenia
9. Dyscalculia
10. Psychomotricity
11. Seminar on case history
12. Logopedical diagnostics
13. Growth group
14. Autogen training (AT)
15. Voice disorders
1. Central disorder of language development:
- Delayed language development
- Dyslalia
- Dyslexia
2. Pathology of the speech organs
- Labial, dental, lingual and palatal dysglossia
3. Swallowing disorders
4. Language disorders due to brain disease:
- Dysglossia
5. Dysphemia (preschool- and primary school age
stuttering)
6. Audiogenic dyslalia
7. Dyscalculia
8. Psychomotricity
9. Information of the communication disorders
not given


What is new in this training? Augmentative communication became obligatory. The hours of the medical sciences were significantly raised (audiology, orthodontics) and new subjects were introduced. (Table 7.) Further we considered the increase of the hours of the clinical practice for both types very important.

TABLE 7.

NEW SUBJECTS IN THE EDUCATION OF LOGOPEDISTS

-Psycholinguistics
-Methodology of primary school
-Drama- and music therapy
-Seminar on case history
-Logopedical diagnostics


PERSONALITY FORMING TECHNIQUES

-Autogen Training (AT)
-Growth Group
-Rogers Therapy

The requirements of professional qualification are the same:
-Theoretical oral examination
-University examination
-Diploma work (written thesis)
-Comprehensive examination
-Practical examination (teaching).

Further we should like to offer for clinical logopedist the possibility of reaching scientific degree.
The importance of the new education system is:
-hours of theory and practice significantly increased (Table 7.)
-the two types of training may fulfil the requirements of our special field
-the teacher on speech techniques will satisfy the demand theatres
-the new Logopedical organisation form will get useful aid in the logopedical teacher who is a well educated primary school teacher too.

As you see on the Table 8. the clinical practice has a good European average hours in the education of the logopedists in Hungary.
TABLE 8.

THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE HOURS OF THE CLINICAL PRACTICE
BY DIFFERENT COUNTRIES
Country Min.
hours
Average
hours
Max.
hours
Australia 300 - -
Austria 1400 - 2000
Belgium 600 - 1300
Denmark 180 - -
Finland 800 - 1320
France 700 - 1579
Greek 620 - -
Holland - - 360
India - 1120 1200
Ireland 150 - 700
Israel - - 736
Canada 350 - 800
China 288 - -
Poland - - 135
Hungary - 730 -
Malta 975 - -
Great-Britain - 630 996
Germany 300 - 1540
Norway 300 - -
Italy - 1070 2000
Russia - 1329 2756
Portugal 1050 - 1200
Spain - 300 -
Switzerland 800 - 1100
Sweden 500 - 600
New Zealand 300 - -
USA 350 - -
(Hong Kong) (300) - -

The Hungarian Special Educators hope that under the influence of the personality training of would be professionals will become more stable, empathic personality.
(*Special Thanks for Kovacs Emoke and Feherne Kovacs Zsuzsanna for the help to write this paper!)

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